Volume 18, No. 6, 2021

Gift Giving As A Form Of Bribery In The Administrative Norms Of Pakistan

Dr. Ayaz Khan , Mr. Fazli Dayan , Zala Sareer , Mr. Hakim Said , Mr. Muhammad Aqeel Khan , Mr. Riaz Ahmad Khan , Sumayya Feroz


The current study was carried out with the main focus on determining the cultural contexts of corruption with specific reference to administrative norms in Pakistani society. A total of 384 interviewees were selected by stratified random sampling techniques from 4 public sector organisations in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study consisted of eight independent variables (Culture Norms, Moral Norms, Religious Norms, and Cultural Declines, Customary Lavish Cost, Gift and Obligatory Nepotism), as well as a dependent variable (Corruption).Questionnaire on the Likert scale has been used in data collection. For the association in study variables, the Chi-square test was used. At the bi-lateralized level, the link between the perception of bribery and cultural rules was observed to be important for individuals and groups, and anti-corruption groups were established at the community levels to reduce bribery. Corruption was likewise significantly linked to compliance with moral norms out of fear of disintegration into society, various norms of living based on the power of individuals; a decrease in moral costs of corruption due to greater acceptance by societies; employee norms& values deformed by organizational norms; and foreign incentives to influence the moral standing of employees. Moreover, the perception of corruption is closely linked to the role played by religious leaders in raising awareness of corruption, encouraging religion in schools, imposing Islamic punishments and promotes corruption due to the silence of religious leaders. In the same way, the perception of corruption has a strong connection with the bias of cultural norms towards rich/elite, the power and prestige is superior to ethics and morality. In the corrupt environment material gains are prefixed over good people. Also, the corruption perceptions of stigma, social promotion to honest deeds, the confidentiality of corruption to avoid stigma, changes in personality to stop fear from stigma, and debate on definitions of right and wrong were found to be a link to observing moral norms. Moreover, the perception of corruption was found in conjunction with an increase in the level of corruption, greater ceremonial expenses, admiration for excessive expenses, expensive customary expenses, competition for excessive usual expenditure, social fame through expensive expenses, the impression of honesty from people's consciences, an insufficient amount of fame. In addition, corruption perception had a significant association with gift giving as an acceptable way of getting favors, familial values of gift giving, social admirations for officer who don’t accept gifts, accepting gifts but remaining fair and people who follow pure merit also receive gifts. not different was the association of corruption perception with safeguarding corruption in personal interest, public servants are trained to prefer civil values over favoritism, society don’t see favoritism as corruption, making bureaucracy independent of political pressure, politicians obliged to give a job to a party/family member, bypassing merit standings of top firms to award contracts and admirations for avoiding penalty to a personal friend. Redefining and revitalizing religious and moral values of honesty, dedication, uprightness and patriotism at family, educational and community level through active participation of all societal segments with specific emphasis on media, religious leaders, teachers and politicians, promotion of social equality in rights irrespective of power status of societal members, devaluation and demoralization of corrupt through legal punishments and social sanctions, promoting admirations and rewards for honesty, devising research based policies and legislation to discourage norms that promote corruption, and introduction of anti-corruption courses at all educational levels were some of policy level recommendations in light of the study findings.

Pages: 564-572

Keywords: Corruption, Culture, Cultural Norms, Gift Giving

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